ODA presented indicators that were equally prevalent and disturbing, with 39.9% of the participants reporting to have been subjected to some kind of abuse in their dating relationship and 30.1% acknowledging to use some form of ODA . Moreover, 69.2% of the participants experienced both CDA and ODA and 53.8% of the participants perpetrated both CDA and ODA. Analysing the different typologies of CDA, most participants assumed to have suffered (38.2%) and practiced (43.4%) some type of intimate control through ICT use. With regard to direct aggression, lower prevalence indicators were found in terms of victimization (8.1%) and perpetration (15.6%), although still worrying. The Statistical Program for Social Sciences was used for statistical analysis (IBM SPSS for Windows, version 26.0, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY, USA), including descriptive statistical analyses. Bivariate descriptive and inferential statistics were computed to investigate the relationship between CDA and ODA .
Applying Attachment Theory to Link Family of Origin Violence History to Cyber Dating Abuse Among College Students
These results show the importance of better understanding the risk factors that may be at the origin of these abusive behaviours. As an example, in an exploratory study involving 189 participants, Deans and Bhogal found that some psychological factors, such as hostility and behavioural jealousy, explained CDA perpetration, thus highlighting the importance to understand the nature of these abusive behaviours. Due to the prevalence and serious consequences of digital violence in couple relationships, obtaining more knowledge about the characteristics of victims and perpetrators, and the underlying factors, is important. Previous studies have shown a relationship between CDA perpetration and normative beliefs, violence justification , and sexist beliefs . In addition, it has been found that being a victim of CDA is a risk factor for perpetration, and vice versa .
Table 2 shows the characteristics of the selected instruments and psychometric studies in this systematic review. The results of each study and instrument with respect to methodological quality and reported psychometric properties quality rating are shown in Table 3. A trained researcher analyzed the methodological quality and psychometric properties quality of 29 studies. However, the best evidence synthesis was done by consensus between two trained researchers, specifically, the overall assessment of each instrument . Using a predominantly ethnic-minority sample of sixth graders who reported ever having had a boyfriend/girlfriend, the findings suggest that dating violence interventions targeting these particular correlates in early adolescents are warranted. The search in the present study was limited by focusing only on scientific articles, by excluding measures that investigate only one CDV behavior and those studies focused on subjects older than 30 years, which may have resulted in relevant contributions to the review being overlooked.
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Recommended Instruments for Analyzing Cyber Dating Violence: A Systematic Review
The Multi-dimensional Monitoring, Control and Threats Pattern displayed gender equivalence and minimal impact. There were no significant differences between genders on impact of all Multi-dimensional TAR Patterns. However, for some individual behaviors in the Humiliation and Threats dimensions, young women reported greater impact than young men. We demonstrate that reporting of individual TAR behaviors, without examining multi-dimensional patterns of victimisation and impact, can result in erroneous reporting of TAR and obscure its gendered nature. These findings deepen the understanding of TAR as a phenomenon revealing an individual’s overall experience of multiple dimensions of TAR, highlighting important directions for further research.
Cyber Dating Abuse: Investigating Digital Monitoring Behaviors Among Adolescents From a Social Learning Perspective
Finally, a recent study found no sex differences in the perpetration of CDA, reporting that sex was a non-significant predictor of these behaviors. Youth use a variety of digital tools to initiate, develop, and maintain a dating relationship. By doing so, youth become more accessible and vulnerable to interpersonal intrusiveness, which can promote certain forms of victimization, such as Cyber Dating Abuse . The present study provides a systematic review aimed to identify the studies that have been developed on youth CDA, describing their methodology, main objectives and findings, as well the constructs used. We identified 44 studies that met our inclusion criteria. Research on CDA has less than a decade and has mainly been developed in North America.
The existence of this close connection between ODA and CDA has also been found in several previous relevant international studies, e.g., . In effect, the literature has been conceptualizing CDA either as a form of psychological abuse, frequently related to face-to-face intimate violence , or as an extension of ODA . In this study, jealousy has a positive significant association with control ODA victimization and emerged as an explanatory variable of control CDA perpetration, explaining 26% of the variance.
Moderate-quality evidence supporting content validity was found. The quality of the evidence of structural validity was very good, with a two-factor structure applying Confirmatory Factor Analysis. This instrument is a subscale inside a more complete instrument assessing all kinds of abuse in dating relationships, so it is more reduced than the other two instruments.
The results indicated significant positive correlations among all forms of CDA (i.e., control and direct aggression) and ODA victimization (i.e., physical, verbal–emotional and control) in both victimization and perpetration patterns. However, regarding the jealousy variable, a significant negative correlation was only found with the control ODA victimization. Finally, linear regression analyses were carried out to investigate the role of ODA (i.e., physical, verbal–emotional and control) and jealousy as explanatory variables of control CDA and CDA direct aggression victimization and perpetration. Thus, four different multilinear regression analyses were performed, using the stepwise method. This allows to obtain a model in which the different explanatory variables X perfectly explain the outcomes’ variables Y, as also suggested by Field . The high reciprocity of cyber dating abuse between males and females indicates that future studies should attempt to elucidate how the dynamics of gender violence are reproduced or subverted by it.
Technology-facilitated Abuse in Relationships Scale (TAR; Brown & Hegarty, Reference Brown and Hegarty 2021). A psychometric study of TAR (Brown & Hegarty, Reference Brown and Hegarty 2021) was carried out with 30 items in a population of 16–24 year-olds. High-quality evidence supporting content validity was found, and one content validity study was also rated as sufficient. The quality maturesforfuck of the evidence for structural validity was adequate, with one study reporting a four-factor structure via Exploratory Factor Analysis. This instrument provided a clear definition of the dating relationship, the period of time under consideration is well delimited, and measures behaviors on all digital devices and digital platforms. The items are related to four dimensions of CDV .